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1. Binfalah, Mohamed, et al. “Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block for the Treatment of Acute Migraine Headache” Pain Research and Treatment. 2018 May; 2018(2516953).

SUMMARY: 55 patients with acute migraine underwent a single sphenopalatine ganglion block using 2% Lidocaine in each nostril. The majority of patients became headache-free at 15 minutes (71%), 2 hours (78%), and 24 hours (69%). The rate of headache relief (50% or more reduction in headache intensity to mild or none) was 98.2% at 15 minutes, 98.2% at 2 hours, and 92.6% at 24 hours. Most patients rated the results as good or very good on PGIC. Few mild, transient adverse events were observed, including throat numbness, nasal discomfort, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and temporary increase in headache severity.

2. Piagkou, Maria, et al. “The Pterygopalatine Ganglion and its Role in Various Pain Syndromes: From Anatomy to Clinical Practice” Pain Practice. 2012 Jun; 12(5): 399-412.

3. Schoenen, Jean, et al. “Stimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) for cluster headache treatment. Pathway CH-1: a randomized, sham-controlled study.” 2013 July; 33(10): 816-30.

4. P.S.N. Murty, et al. “Endoscopic Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block for Pain Relief” IJO & HNS. 1998 Jan-Mar; 50(1).

5. Spector, Kellie, et al. “A New Look at Sphenopalatine Ganglion Blocks for Chronic Migraine” Practical Pain Management. 2017 Aug; 16(1).

6. Furtado, IF, et al. “Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block May Be an Efficient Treatment of Headache After Lumboperitoneal Shunt Placement: A Case Report” A & A Practice. 2019 Jun; 12(11): 401–402.

7. Puthenveettil, N, et al. “Sphenopalatine ganglion block for treatment of post-dural puncture headache in obstetric patients: An observational study” Indian J Anaesth. 2018 Dec; 62(12): 972-977.

8. Mehta, D, et al. “The Effect of Regional Anesthetic Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block on Self-Reported Pain in Patients With Status Migrainosus” Headache. 2019 Jan; 59(1): 69-76.

9. Cohen, S, et al. “Topical Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block Compared With Epidural Blood Patch for Postdural Puncture Headache Management in Postpartum Patients: A Retrospective Review” Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 2018 Nov; 43(8): 880-884.

10. Slullitel, A, et al. “Transnasal sphenopalatine nerve block for patients with headaches” Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2018 Jun; 47: 80-81.

11. Mojica, J, et al. “Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block in the Management of Chronic Headaches” Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2017 Jun; 21(6): 27.